Categories

World Bank

World Bank

World Bank logo
Type International organization
Legal status Treaty
Purpose/focus Crediting
Location Washington DC
Membership

187 countries (IBRD)

170 countries (IDA)
President Robert B. Zoellick
Main organ Board of Directors[1]
Parent organization World Bank Group
Website worldbank.org

The World Bank is an international financial institution that provides loans[2] to developing countries for capital programmes. The World Bank's official goal is the reduction of poverty. By law,[which?] all of its decisions must be guided by a commitment to promote foreign investment, international trade and facilitate capital investment.[3]

The World Bank differs from the World Bank Group, in that the World Bank comprises only two institutions: the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) and the International Development Association (IDA), whereas the latter incorporates these two in addition to three more:[4] International Finance Corporation (IFC), Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA), and International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID).

[edit] History

John Maynard Keynes (right) represented the United Kingdom at the conference, and Harry Dexter White (left) represented the United States.

The World Bank is one of five institutions created at the Bretton Woods Conference in 1944. The International Monetary Fund, a related institution, is the second. Delegates from many countries attended the Bretton Woods Conference. The most powerful countries in attendance were the United States and United Kingdom, which dominated negotiations.[5]

Although both are based in Washington, D.C., the World Bank is, by custom, headed by an American, while the IMF is led by a European.

[edit] 1945–1968

From its conception until 1967 the bank undertook a relatively low level of lending. Fiscal conservatism and careful screening of loan applications was common. Bank staff attempted to balance the priorities of providing loans for reconstruction and development with the need to instill confidence in the bank.[6]

Bank president John McCloy selected France to be first recipient of World Bank aid; two other applications from Poland and Chile were rejected. The loan was for $250 million, half the amount requested and came with strict conditions. Staff from the World Bank monitored the use of the funds, ensuring that the French government would present a balanced budget and give priority of debt repayment to the World Bank over other governments. The United States State Department told the French government that communist elements within the Cabinet needed to be removed. The French Government complied with this diktat and removed the Communist coalition government. Within hours the loan to France was approved.[7]

The Marshall Plan of 1947 caused lending by the bank to change as many European countries received aid that competed with World Bank loans. Emphasis was shifted to non-European countries and until 1968, loans were earmarked for projects that would enable a borrower country to repay loans (such projects as ports, highway systems, and power plants).

[edit] 1968–1980

From 1968 to 1980, the bank concentrated on meeting the basic needs of people in the developing world.[citation needed] The size and number of loans to borrowers was greatly increased as loan targets expanded from infrastructure into social services and other sectors.[citation needed]

These changes can be attributed to Robert McNamara who was appointed to the presidency in 1968 by Lyndon B. Johnson.[8] McNamara imported a technocratic managerial style to the Bank that he had used as United States Secretary of Defense and President of the Ford Motor Company.[9] McNamara shifted bank policy toward measures such as building schools and hospitals, improving literacy and agricultural reform. McNamara created a new system of gathering information from potential borrower nations that enabled the bank to process loan applications much faster. To finance more loans, McNamara told bank treasurer Eugene Rotberg to seek out new sources of capital outside of the northern banks that had been the primary sources of bank funding. Rotberg used the global bond market to increase the capital available to the bank.[10] One consequence of the period of poverty alleviation lending was the rapid rise of third world debt. From 1976 to 1980 developing world debt rose at an average annual rate of 20%.[11][12]

In 1980, the World Bank Administrative Tribunal was established to decide on disputes between the World Bank Group and its staff where allegation of non-observance of contracts of employment or terms of appointment had not been honoured.[13]

[edit] 1980–1989

In 1980, A.W. Clausen replaced McNamara after being nominated by US President Jimmy Carter. Clausen replaced a large number of bank staffers from the McNamara era and instituted a new ideological focus in the bank. The replacement of Chief Economist Hollis B. Chenery by Anne Krueger in 1982 marked a notable policy shift at the bank. Krueger was known for her criticism of development funding as well as third world governments as rent-seeking states.

Lending to service third world debt marked the period of 1980–1989. Structural adjustment policies aimed at streamlining the economies of developing nations were also a large part of World Bank policy during this period. UNICEF reported in the late 1980s that the structural adjustment programs of the World Bank were responsible for the "reduced health, nutritional and educational levels for tens of millions of children in Asia, Latin America, and Africa".[14]

[edit] 1989–present

From 1989, World Bank policy changed in response to criticism from many groups. Environmental groups and NGOs were incorporated in the lending of the bank in order to mitigate the effects of the past that prompted such harsh criticism.[15]

The World Bank headquarters in Washington, D.C.

[edit] Leadership

The President of the Bank, currently Robert B. Zoellick, is responsible for chairing the meetings of the Boards of Directors and for overall management of the Bank. Traditionally, the Bank President has always been a US citizen nominated by the United States, the largest shareholder in the bank. The nominee is subject to confirmation by the Board of Governors, to serve for a five-year, renewable term.[16]

The Executive Directors, representing the Bank's member countries, make up the Board of Directors, usually meeting twice a week to oversee activities such as the approval of loans and guarantees, new policies, the administrative budget, country assistance strategies and borrowing and financing decisions.

The Vice Presidents of the Bank are its principal managers, in charge of regions, sectors, networks and functions. There are 24 Vice-Presidents, three Senior Vice Presidents and two Executive Vice Presidents.

[edit] List of Presidents

Not all World Bank Presidents have banking experience with some as political appointments.

Name Dates Nationality Field
Eugene Meyer 1946–1946  United States Newspaper publisher
John J. McCloy 1947–1949  United States Lawyer and US Assistant Secretary of War
Eugene R. Black, Sr. 1949–1963  United States Bank executive with Chase and executive director with the World Bank
George Woods 1963–1968  United States Bank executive with First Boston Corporation
Robert McNamara 1968–1981  United States US Defense Secretary, business executive with Ford Motor Company
Alden W. Clausen 1981–1986  United States Lawyer, bank executive with Bank of America
Barber Conable 1986–1991  United States New York State Senator and US Congressman
Lewis T. Preston 1991–1995  United States Bank executive with J.P. Morgan
Sir James Wolfensohn 1995–2005  United States
 Australia[note 1]
Corporate lawyer and banker
Paul Wolfowitz 2005–2007  United States Various cabinet and government positions; US Ambassador to Indonesia, US Deputy Secretary of Defense
Robert B. Zoellick 2007–present  United States Bank executive with Goldman Sachs, Deputy Secretary of State and US Trade Representative

[edit] List of chief economists

[edit] Members

The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) has 187 member countries, while the International Development Association (IDA) has 168 members.[17] Each member state of IBRD should be also a member of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and only members of IBRD are allowed to join other institutions within the Bank (such as IDA).[18]

[edit] Voting power

In 2010, voting powers at the World Bank were revised to increase the voice of developing countries, notably China. The countries with most voting power are now the United States (15.85%), Japan (6.84%), China (4.42%), Germany (4.00%), the United Kingdom (3.75%), France (3.75%), and India (2.91%). Under the changes, known as 'Voice Reform - Phase 2', other countries that saw significant gains included South Korea, Turkey, Mexico, Singapore, Greece, Brazil, India, and Spain. Most developed countries' voting power was reduced, while countries including Nigeria, United States', Russia's and Saudi Arabia's voting power was unchanged.[19][20]

The changes were brought about with the goal of making voting more universal in regards to standards, rule-based with objective indicators, and transparent among other things. Now, developing countries have an increased voice in the "Pool Model," backed especially by Europe. Additionally, voting power is based on economic size in addition to International Development Association contributions.[21]

[edit] Poverty reduction strategies

For the poorest developing countries in the world, the bank's assistance plans are based on poverty reduction strategies; by combining a cross-section of local groups with an extensive analysis of the country's financial and economic situation the World Bank develops a strategy pertaining uniquely to the country in question. The government then identifies the country's priorities and targets for the reduction of poverty, and the World Bank aligns its aid efforts correspondingly.

Forty-five countries pledged US$25.1 billion in "aid for the world's poorest countries", aid that goes to the World Bank International Development Association (IDA) which distributes the loans to eighty poorer countries. While wealthier nations sometimes fund their own aid projects, including those for diseases, and although IDA is the recipient of criticism, Robert B. Zoellick, the president of the World Bank, said when the loans were announced on December 15, 2007, that IDA money "is the core funding that the poorest developing countries rely on".[22]

[edit] Clean Technology Fund management

The World Bank has been assigned temporary management responsibility of the Clean Technology Fund (CTF), focused on making renewable energy cost-competitive with coal-fired power as quickly as possible, but this may not continue after UN's Copenhagen climate change conference in December, 2009, because of the Bank's continued investment in coal-fired power plants.[23]

[edit] Clean Air Initiative

Clean Air Initiative (CAI)[24] is a World Bank initiative to advance innovative ways to improve air quality in cities through partnerships in selected regions of the world by sharing knowledge and experiences. It includes electric vehicles.

[edit] United Nations Development Business

Based on an agreement between the United Nations and the World Bank in 1981, Development Business became the official source for World Bank Procurement Notices, Contract Awards, and Project Approvals.[25] In 1998, the agreement was re-negotiated, and included in this agreement was a joint venture to create an electronic version of the publication via the World Wide Web. Today, Development Business is the primary publication for all major multilateral development banks, United Nations agencies, and several national governments, many of whom have made the publication of their tenders and contracts in Development Business a mandatory requirement.[26] Currently, the subscription to "online version only" is not free, but costs US$ 550.[27]

The World Bank or the World Bank Group is also a sitting observer in the United Nations Development Group.[28]

[edit] Criticisms

The World Bank has long been criticized by non-governmental organizations, such as the indigenous rights group Survival International, and academics, including its former Chief Economist Joseph Stiglitz who is equally critical of the International Monetary Fund, the US Treasury Department, US and other developed country trade negotiators.[29] Critics argue that the so-called free market reform policies which the Bank advocates are often harmful to economic development if implemented badly, too quickly ("shock therapy"), in the wrong sequence or in weak, uncompetitive economies.[29][30]

In Masters of Illusion: The World Bank and the Poverty of Nations (1996), Catherine Caufield argued that the assumptions and structure of the World Bank harms southern nations. Caufield criticized its formulaic recipes of "development". To the World Bank, different nations and regions are indistinguishable and ready to receive the "uniform remedy of development". She argued that to attain even modest success, Western practices are adopted and traditional economic structures and values abandoned. A second assumption is that poor countries cannot modernize without money and advice from abroad.

A number of intellectuals in developing countries have argued that the World Bank is deeply implicated in contemporary modes of donor and NGO imperialism, and that its intellectual contributions function to blame the poor for their condition.[31]

One of the strongest criticisms of the World Bank has been the way in which it is governed. While the World Bank represents 186 countries, it is run by a small number of economically powerful countries. These countries choose the leadership and senior management of the World Bank, and so their interests dominate the bank.[32]

The World Bank has dual roles that are contradictory: that of a political organization and that of a practical organization. As a political organization, the World Bank must meet the demands of donor and borrowing governments, private capital markets, and other international organizations. As an action-oriented organization, it must be neutral, specializing in development aid, technical assistance, and loans. The World Bank's obligations to donor countries and private capital markets have caused it to adopt policies which dictate that poverty is best alleviated by the implementation of "market" policies.[33]

In the 1990s, the World Bank and the IMF forged the Washington Consensus, policies which included deregulation and liberalization of markets, privatization and the downscaling of government. Though the Washington Consensus was conceived as a policy that would best promote development, it was criticized for ignoring equity, employment and how reforms like privatization were carried out. Many now agree[citation needed] that the Washington Consensus placed too much emphasis on the growth of GDP, and not enough on the permanence of growth or on whether growth contributed to better living standards.[34]

Some analysis shows that the World Bank has increased poverty and been detrimental to the environment, public health and cultural diversity.[35] Some critics also claim that the World Bank has consistently pushed a neoliberal agenda, imposing policies on developing countries which have been damaging, destructive and anti-developmental.[36][37]

It has also been suggested that the World Bank is an instrument for the promotion of US or Western interests in certain regions of the world. South American nations have even established the Bank of the South in order to reduce US influence in the region.[38] One criticism of the bank is that the President is always a citizen of the United States, nominated by the President of the United States (though subject to the "approval" of the other member countries). There have been accusations that the decision-making structure is undemocratic as the US has a veto on some constitutional decisions with just over 16% of the shares in the bank;[39] Decisions can only be passed with votes from countries whose shares total more than 85% of the bank's shares.[40] A further criticism concerns internal management and the manner in which the World Bank is said to lack accountability.[41]

Criticism of the World Bank often takes the form of protesting as seen in recent events such as the World Bank Oslo 2002 Protests,[42] the October Rebellion,[43] and the Battle of Seattle.[44] Such demonstrations have occurred all over the world, even amongst the Brazilian Kayapo people.[45]

In 2008, a World Bank report which found that biofuels had driven food prices up 75% was not published. Officials confided that they believed it was suppressed to avoid embarrassing the then-President of the United States, George W. Bush.[46]

[edit] Knowledge production

The World Bank has been criticized[by whom?] for the manner in which it engages in "the production, accumulation, circulation and functioning" of knowledge. The Bank's production of knowledge has become integral to the funding and justification of large capital projects. The Bank relies on "a growing network of translocal scientists, technocrats, NGOs, and empowered citizens to help generate data and construct discursive strategies".[47] Its capacity to produce authoritative knowledge is a response to intense scrutiny of Bank projects resulting from the successes of growing anti-Bank and alternative-development movements.[48] "Development has relied exclusively on one knowledge system, namely, the modern Western one. The dominance of this knowledge system has dictated the marginalization and disqualification of non-Western knowledge systems".[49] It has been remarked that in these alternative knowledge systems, researchers and activists might find alternative rationales to guide interventionist action away from Western (Bank-produced) ways of thinking. Knowledge production has become an asset to the Bank, and "it is generated and used in highly strategic ways"[50] to provide justifications for development.

[edit] Structural adjustment

The effect of structural adjustment policies on poor countries has been one of the most significant criticisms of the World Bank. The 1979 energy crisis plunged many countries into economic crises.[51] The World Bank responded with structural adjustment loans which distributed aid to struggling countries while enforcing policy changes in order to reduce inflation and fiscal imbalance. Some of these policies included encouraging production, investment and labour-intensive manufacturing, changing real exchange rates and altering the distribution of government resources.[52] Structural adjustment policies were most effective in countries with an institutional framework that allowed these policies to be implemented easily.[53] For some countries, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa, economic growth regressed and inflation worsened.[54] The alleviation of poverty was not a goal of structural adjustment loans, and the circumstances of the poor often worsened, due to a reduction in social spending and an increase in the price of food, as subsidies were lifted.[55]

By the late 1980s, international organizations began to admit that structural adjustment policies were worsening life for the world's poor. The World Bank changed structural adjustment loans, allowing for social spending to be maintained, and encouraging a slower change to policies such as transfer of subsidies and price rises.[56] In 1999, the World Bank and the IMF introduced the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper approach to replace structural adjustment loans.[57] The Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper approach has been interpreted as an extension of structural adjustment policies as it continues to reinforce and legitimize global inequities.[58] Neither approach has addressed the inherent flaws within the global economy that contribute to economic and social inequities within developing countries.[59] By reinforcing the relationship between lending and client states, many believe that the World Bank has usurped indebted countries' power to determine their own economic policy.[60]

[edit] Water privatization

Sociologist Michael Goldman has argued that "Industry analysts predict that private water will soon be a capitalized market as precious, and as war-provoking, as oil".[61] Goldman says "These days, an indebted country cannot borrow capital from the World Bank or IMF without a domestic water privatization policy as a precondition".[62] The Bank is utilizing "the 'Washington Consensus' model of "development" to promote water privatization. Following this model, the World Bank is forcing many countries to commodify their water resources, rather than using their expertise in the public sector to acknowledge water as a universal human right and an essential public service".[63] The push for water privatization development plays upon "the shocking tragedy that much of the world lacks affordable clean water". This image creates "new opportunities in development, though it may have little to do with ultimately quenching" the needs of impoverished countries. "The problem of water scarcity for the world's poor has been analyzed by the World Bank as one in which the public sector has failed to deliver, and has therefore prevented development from "taking off", and the economy from modernizing. If the state cannot deliver something as basic as water and sanitation, the argument goes, it is a strong indication of a general failure of public-sector capacity".[64] However, "with the sale or lease of a public good comes more than simply a privatized service; alongside it comes a wide set of postcolonial institutional forces that intervene in state-citizen relations and North-South dynamics".[65] One notable example is the privatization of water forced upon Bolivians by the World Bank which led to multiple protests including the 2000 Cochabamba protests.

[edit] Sovereign immunity

Despite claiming goals of "good governance and anti-corruption″[66] the World Bank requires sovereign immunity from countries it deals with.[67][68][69][70][71] Sovereign immunity waives a holder from all legal liability for their actions. It is proposed that this immunity from responsibility is a "shield which [The World Bank] wants resort to, for escaping accountability and security by the people."[67] As the United States has veto power, it can prevent the World Bank from taking action against its interests.[67]

[edit] Environmental strategy

The World Bank's ongoing work to develop a strategy on climate change and environmental threats has been criticized for (i) lacking of a proper overall vision and purpose, (ii) having a limited focus on its own role in global and regional governance, and (iii) having limited recognition of specific regional issues, e.g. issues of rights to food and land, and sustainable land use. Critics have also commented that only 1% of the World Bank's lending goes to the environmental sector, narrowly defined.[72]

Environmentalists are urging the Bank to stop worldwide support for the development of coal plants and other large emitters of greenhouse gas and operations that are proven to pollute or damage the environment. For instance, protesters in South Africa and abroad have criticized the 2010 decision of the World Bank's approval for a $3.75 billion loan to build the world's 4th largest coal-fired power plant in South Africa. The plant will greatly increase the demand for coal mining and corresponding harmful environmental effects of coal.[73]

[edit] References

  1. ^ "Board of Directors". World Bank. Retrieved 2011-08-14.
  2. ^ "About Us". World Bank. 2008-10-14. Retrieved 2008-11-09.
  3. ^ "About Us". World Bank. 2011-06-29. Retrieved 2011-08-14.
  4. ^ "About The World Bank (FAQs)". World Bank. April 2011. Retrieved 20011-08-14.
  5. ^ Goldman, Michael (2005). Imperial Nature: The World Bank and Struggles for Social Justice in the Age of Globalization. Yale University Press. pp. 52–54. ISBN 9780300119749.
  6. ^ Goldman, pp. 56–60.
  7. ^ Bird, Kai (1992). The Chairman: John J. McCloy, the Making of the American Establishment. Simon and Schuster. pp. 288, 290–291. ISBN 9780671454159.
  8. ^ Goldman, pp. 60–63.
  9. ^ Goldman, p. 62.
  10. ^ Rotberg, Eugene. "Financial Operations of the World Bank." In Bretton Woods: Looking to the Future. ed. Bretton Woods Commission. Washington, D.C.: Bretton Woods Commission, 1994
  11. ^ Mosley, Paul, Jane Harrigan, and John Toye. Aid and Power: The World Bank and Policy-Based Lending. London: Routledge, 1991
  12. ^ Toussaint, Eric. Your Money or Your Life! The Tyranny of Global Finance. Pluto Press, 1998
  13. ^ "About World Bank Administrative Tribunal". World Bank. Retrieved 2011-08-14.
  14. ^ Cornia, Giovanni Andrea. Adjustment with a Human Face. 2 vols. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1987–1988
  15. ^ Goldman, pp. 93–97.
  16. ^ "Organization". The World Bank Group. Retrieved 2009-03-25.
  17. ^ "Members". The World Bank Group. Retrieved 2008-02-06.
  18. ^ "Member countries". The World Bank Group. Retrieved 2008-02-06.
  19. ^ "IBRD 2010 Voting Power Realignment" (PDF). Siteresources.worldbank.org. Retrieved 2011-08-14. "Source: World Bank Group Voice Reform: Enhancing Voice and Participation in Developing and Transition Countries in 2010 and Beyond, DC 2010-0006/1, April 25, 2010"
  20. ^ China given more influence in World Bank, RTHK, 26 April 2010
  21. ^ Stumm, Mario (March 2011). "World Bank: More responsibility for developing countries". Inwent.org. Retrieved 2011-08-12.
  22. ^ Landler, Mark (2007-12-15). "Britain Overtakes U.S. as Top World Bank Donor". The New York Times. Retrieved 2011-08-14.
  23. ^ "Global Development: Views from the Center". Center for Global Development. 2008-05-20. Retrieved 2008-11-09.
  24. ^ "CAI Global". Cleanairnet.org. Retrieved 2010-05-31.
  25. ^ "UN Development Business Subscriber Log In page". Devbusiness.com. Retrieved 2011-08-14.
  26. ^ "About UN Development Business". Devbusiness.com. Retrieved 2011-08-14.
  27. ^ "Subscribe to UN Development Business Online". Devbusiness.com. Retrieved 2011-08-14.
  28. ^ "UNDG Members". Undg.org. Retrieved 2011-08-12.
  29. ^ a b See Joseph Stiglitz, The Roaring Nineties, Globalization and Its Discontents, and Making Globalization Work.
  30. ^ MacClancy, Jeremy (2002). Exotic No More: Anthropology on the Front Lines. University Of Chicago Press. ISBN 0226500136.
  31. ^ David Moore's edited book The World Bank, University of KwaZulu-Natal Press, 2007
  32. ^ Woods, Ngaire. The Globalizers: The IMF, the World Bank, and Their Borrowers. Ithica and London: Cornell University Press, 2006, pp.190
  33. ^ Weaver, Catherine. Hypocrisy Trap: The World Bank and The Poverty of Reform. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2008, pp.31–32
  34. ^ Stiglitz, Joseph E. Making Globalization Work. New York and London: W.W. Norton & Company, 2006, pp. 17
  35. ^ "Criticism of World Trade Organization, World Bank and International Monetary Fund - Editorial". The Ecologist (original), later republished at BNET Business Network. 2000-09. Retrieved 2007-10-07.
  36. ^ Uvin, P. (2002) On High Moral Ground: The Incorporation of Human Rights by the Development Enterprise. In: PRAXIS The Fletcher Journal of Development Studies, Volume XVII pp1-11. Medford MA: Tufts University. Online at Fletcher.tufts.edu
  37. ^ Hertz, N. (2004) I.O.U.: The Debt Threat and Why We Must Defuse It. London: Harper Perennial.
  38. ^ Ingham, James (2007-10-09). "New South American bank planned". BBC News.
  39. ^ Wade, Robert (2002). "U.S. hegemony and the World Bank: the fight over people and ideas". Review of International Political Economy 9 (2): 215–243. doi:10.1080/09692290110126092.
  40. ^ Monbiot, G. (2004) The Age of Consent. London: Harper Perennial.
  41. ^ Stone, Diane and Wright, Christopher eds. (2006) The World Bank and Governance: A Decade of Reform and Reaction, Routledge.
  42. ^ Gibbs, Walter (2002-06-25). "World Briefing – Europe: Norway: Protests As World Bank Meets". New York Times.
  43. ^ "Violence Erupts at Protest in Georgetown". The Washington Post: p. B01. October 20, 2007. Retrieved 30 May 2008.
  44. ^ Kimberly A.C. Wilson, Embattled police chief resigns, Seattle Post-Intelligencer, December 7, 1999. Accessed online May 19, 2008.
  45. ^ Clendenning, Alan (Altamira, Brazil) (2008-05-21). "Amazon Indians Attack Official Over Dam Project". Associated Press.
  46. ^ Chakrabortty, Aditya (2008-07-03). "Secret report: biofuel caused food crisis". The Guardian. Retrieved 2011-08-14.
  47. ^ Goldman, p. 156.
  48. ^ Goldman, p. 179.
  49. ^ Escobar, Arturo (1995). Encountering Development: the Making and Unmaking of the Third World. Princeton University Press. p. 13. ISBN 9780691001029.
  50. ^ Goldman, p. 179.
  51. ^ deVries, Barend A. (1996). "The World Bank's Focus on Poverty". In Griesgraber, Jo Marie; Gunter, Bernhard G.. The World Bank: Lending on a Global Scale. Pluto Press. p. 68. ISBN 9780745310497.
  52. ^ deVries, p. 69.
  53. ^ deVries, p. 69.
  54. ^ deVries, p. 69.
  55. ^ deVries, p. 69.
  56. ^ deVries, p. 70.
  57. ^ Tan, Celine (2007). "The poverty of amnesia: PRSPs in the legacy of structural adjustment". In Stone, Diane; Wright, Christopher. The World Bank and Governance: A Decade of Reform and Reaction. Routledge. p. 147. ISBN 9780415412827.
  58. ^ Tan, p. 152.
  59. ^ Tan, p. 152.
  60. ^ Chossudovsky M. The Globalization of Poverty: Impacts of IMF and World Bank Reforms. Penang: Third World Network, 1997 in Tan, 152
  61. ^ Goldman, p. 232.
  62. ^ Goldman, p. 232.
  63. ^ Goldman, p. 232.
  64. ^ Goldman, p. 232.
  65. ^ Goldman, p. 268.
  66. ^ "Fraud and Corruption". World Bank. 2009-10-24.
  67. ^ a b c "The World Bank and the Question of Immunity". IFI Watch Bangladesh. September 4, 2004.
  68. ^ "Sovereign Immunity". World Bank. Retrieved 2009-10-24.
  69. ^ Adam Isaac Hasson. "Extraterritorial jurisdiction and sovereign immunity on trial: Noriega, Pinochet and Milosevic - Trends in political accountability and transnational criminal law". Retrieved 2009-10-23.
  70. ^ "Crime and Reward: Immunity To The World Bank". 6 November 2004.
  71. ^ "Water Policies and the International Financial Institutions". Public Citizen.
  72. ^ Vedeld, Trond: Can the World Bank Save the World? (2010-02-23). "The NIBR International Blog". Norwegian Institute for Urban and Regional Research. Retrieved 2011-08-14.
  73. ^ "Word Bank approves coal plant is South Africa". Democracy Now!. 2010-04-09. Retrieved 2011-08-14.

The Bank Information Center partners with civil society in developing and transition countries to influence the World Bank and other international financial institutions to promote social and economic justice and ecological sustainability.

[edit] Notes

  1. ^ The World Bank President is traditionally an American citizen. Wolfensohn was a naturalised American citizen before taking office.
Author:Bling King
Published:Sep 25th 2011
Modified:Jan 10th 2012
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There is no such thing as time
Posted by Bling King

    

     Upon further ponderance I have come to the conclusion that time does not exist except in the law of physics. I have come to this conclusion through the observation of how things change and why they change at the pace in which they change. To me it seems that every change that takes place  in the universe is not dictated by time but rather physics. It is the law of physics that dictates the rate and speed at which all things change. For example if you have a car  that is traveling at 100 miles an hour the speed at  which the car travels is all dictated by physical changes and therfor controlled by the law of physics..Therfor it seems that for any change to take place all you need is physics and the law of physics that governs the physical changes. Time does not need be a factor and bears no relavance. As long as we have the law of physics everything will happen in accordance with those laws.

The composition of time
Posted by Bling King

   

    Time has 3 components. A front a middle and a rear. In the front time has what appears to be something of perspectual perspectualness that will move things forward at a set forth proponent. This part of time is easy to see and witness. However it is not easy to predict at which point time will make forward momentum happen. It would seem that this forward momentum is always in inactment but I would disagree with this. To me it seems more as if time interacts with things on its own accord leaving somethings unchanged for long standing periods of time. An example of this would be how time occasionally interacts with the speed of light. The speed of light remains constant but occasionally time will manifest itself into the equation and make modifications of the speed that light travels. For instance light will move forward forthwittingly at a billion miles a second but if it encounters any kind of resistance then time will inject itself and change the speed at which it was moving. Which leads me to the assumption that in order for time to inject itself into any equation a proponent has to take place that makes a physical change that would cause time to interject itself. If no physical change takes place than time has also not been a factor.

    The middle proponent of time is the area in which time is manipulating  the change that takes...Read More

👄What turns me on
Posted by Bling King

    I get turned on by some funny stuff. I'm not really into like full blown kinkiness or at least I wouldn't consider myself to be a kinky person but I do have a few fetishes. Some of them are a little out of the ordinary. For instance I have this one fetish about being tied up  and thrown in the ocean and then rescued by a mermaid. I think this fantasy comes from when I was a kid and I used to dream of mermaids and always wanted to meet one. Well one day its gonna happen. Now don't go telling me mermaids don't exist. You don't know cause they are in fact real and as soon as I meet one I will prove it to you. As far as some of my other turn ons  I guess what really gets me excited is people who  tell other people to shut the fuck up. I love when a woman just looks at a man and tells him to shut his mouth. To me thats a big turn on because the woman seems assertive like a dominatrix or something. If she will be assertive in a conversation she will be assertive in the bedroom or so I  would like to believe.

Time is a dialectable derelict
Posted by Bling King

To fathom the fortrighteousness of time one has to contemplate the personification of forthwittial forthwittil. Time forthwittingly will only listen to the commands of its on inner personification to which there is no directional direction or so it would seem but on further inquisitories I have come to realize that there is a forthwittingly forthwittal of which time has pronounced and those commands seem to speak to the nature of to which time corresponds. To review these pronouncements for your own bemusement look at time as if you had it captured it  in a bottle. What would happen? We know on the inside of the bottle time would force the inner workings of the bottle to correspond to times diabolical commands. Causing everything to change to times everlescent rules. however on the outside of the bottle things would not change, everything would stay in constant neutrality or would it? The question remains if there was no time would things still be allowed to happen and if so at what pace and what would dictate the pace at which things would change. There seems to be no rule in place for the dictation of the pace change which takes place. So it would seem that time has decided that factor somehow within itself. There could be a correlation at which things change and the pace being dictated by physics and the amount the physical world can be allowed to change within its own accord of set boundaries. To actually find...Read More

Free from time constraints
Posted by Bling King

 

 

 

There was a time when time did not matter. The thing that was an utmost relevance now was of no matter. The diffrence it made seemed miniscule and now it is constantly dictating everything that takes place before me. What is this thing that controls and makes everything manifest itself to its constraints and why and how does it do this. Time is nothing but the utmost miracle before us. Something that has always had to exist for anything ever to take place. There is no changing its course there is no variance in its absolute everlasting existance. To control time would be the utmost  crown jewel of all accomplishments if indeed it could ever be controlled. The only way I ever see time being manipulated to change its values is to speed up everything that time has interacted with. In order to do such a thing you would have to understand the nature of the objects in question and how they are effected by time. For instance a speeding car will slow down in time without constant force being distrubuted by the engine. To slow down the car one only has to take their foot off the accelarator and gradually time will do the rest but if you could freeze time at the speed at which the car was traveling then time would not  exist because the...Read More

the truth about time
Posted by Bling King

        I have looked at time many times and I have noticed a few components. There is a precise proponent that ushers in a manifestation. Whenever something new is going to happen you can look at that event which is about to take place and precisely predict exactly when it has started. Once you realize a manifestation has taken place you can precisely predict its out come. If you know that a manifestation has started to take place then you will know you are being guided through the realm precisely by the forces of an enlightenment. Throughout time this manifestation will remain constant starting with a beginning and an end and ending in a preconcieved enlightenment. Sometimes an enlightenment can take weeks and some times an enlightenment can take centuries. It depends on how many times that enlightenment has been benounced to the realm. 

 

nothing
Posted by Bling King

I suspect a suffcient of sufficence of suffiacantel suffiance of suffiance of absurdity of absurdanace. In all actual actuality there is an  actual actuality of actualityness in retrospect to the retorospective respect in which every person who has an intellectual intellect can see that the world is a prominance of prominance in which the order will reside as long as the order is maintained. Once that order is relinquished chaos will ensue. For chaos to be a calamity there only needs to be a perspectual perspective of perspectance that escalates the chaos to that height. What would cause that is a person or persons in the realm of the realmatical realmatics looking beyond thier own existance to the existance of there forfathers to see what has become of thier existance. If you look at your own existance for what it is you will see that it is neither logical nor illogical for it makes all the sense of a sensimatical sensematic. As long as you have a reason for your own existance then it is fruitful for you to exist. Once that reason or reasons are gone you will no longer care whether it is you live or die. In the realm in which we live is a prospectus prospectant of prospectantin which all will ensue. To change the prospectus prospectus you need to look to the realm and see what the prospectus prospectant is and manifest it to your own liking. My...Read More

The conclusive conclusion
Posted by Bling King

In all actual reality the realm is manifested of certain procedural procedures that come forth frequently to forthrightous forthrightenous. In the place of predicament I have found that I can properly place things in the procedural sequence unbenowst to people of the realm. In order to conflict the conflictions you have to equate the equation of equationalness in to proper equations. Very simple but also very tedious. You do this by equating the equation into percise preciseness. An example of an equation would be a placement of perdicament of a certain event in which you wish it to be. The next manifestation I could manifest is a manifestual manifestation of manifests of a sequance of certainal circumstances. Put together a sequence by asking the sequence in order to manifest itself and then tell the manifestations to happen in frequence in which they will unfold.

The Unattainable future
Posted by Bling King

     If the future is a grain of sand and its falling through an hour glass nothing in the world can stop it. It will eniquivaocalby blind as to where its going when it comes to its rest it has befallen its fate and will remain where it lay for an eternity knowing nothing about itself or it's surroundings. I am that grain of sand. Nothing ever can change my destiny for only time here makes a diffrence.. To benounce the future is the only way to change ones fortune. The time it takes to make an equivical change remains the utmost mystery of the universe.

🤯In the eyes of myself
Posted by Bling King

 

 

There where three men. All who seemed frightened. They stood on the edge of the canyon looking on as a fourth man tumbled to his death. We could have saved him said one of the men. He should have saved himself said another. The third man just look at them bewildered and brought a handgun to his own head and pulled the trigger. Blood spattered. The two men watched as he slumped to the ground. The first man screamed and the second threw himself to the side of the man on the ground. Why?!! he screamed. It was the only sound heard. Sobbing he looked at the man standing and said you did this! You and your frigging righteous speech about the lives we leave and the sacrifice we must make. Your the devil. I am not the devil said the standing man only the truth. The truth about what? The other man screamed. Your life he said and he jumped.

The man heard a ringing and he sat up slowly. It was over the dream but his thoughts where still on the side of the canyon. How did this happen. How did it all just fade away? The dream came and went in an instant leaving his mind boggled and his eyes heavy. I knew I was there thought the man but how? It was all to familiar the...Read More

The story Elijah and Ellen
Posted by Bling King

The story of Elijah and Ellan. This is the story of Elijah and Ellan. Ellan is a beutiful temptress and Elijah is a dutiful servant of Ellan's. Together the pair fell in love and soon became a duo of in excessible excession. They frolicked in the sun under the rare occurance of rain they took shelter in the arms of each other. One day while hiding from the glares of the sun under an oak tree that provided an abundance of shade they looked into each others souls and realized there where no people suited for each other then the two of them where suited for each other. They basked in the notion that they where the most two compatible souls on the planet. As they where thinking this a giant unforseen acclamaited acclamation occurred. The planet began to tremble and shake beneath them and the stars came out. The sun hid amongst the clouds and everything from start to finish began to take shape. There where huge explosions and giant surges of wind and rain. The two began to run for their shelter knowing at the exact moment the trembling and violent agressions of unacclaimated weather started that they most likely wouldn't make it to see another sunrise. The planet was exploding with molten lava and the tempertures where unbearable as for the two of them could remember they had never seen a winter climate and didn't expect they ever would. The planet had been warming out of...Read More

today was a day of dismal despair
Posted by Bling King

Things have gone down hill drastically now for a very long time. We seem to be some what defeated but yet i know we still have some power and prominance. We are fighting an up hill battle and there is no way forward from here from what i can see. We are trudging along a path that goes nowhere.

⚔️The Greatest Warrior of All Time
Posted by Bling King

 

 

Today i conquered and beat all adverseries there where to beat. Tomorrow new adversaries will arise. I will be ready, there is never a shortage of enemies who wish to dethrone me from the top of the world. I didn't get here by being passive and yeilding to the oppostion. I got here by defeating them both mentally and physically and in entiriety.

In a time of desilute despair
Posted by Bling King

     There was a time when I was in desilute despair. The only thing I had was me myself and I to fall back on. I looked at the person who was my opponent and I knew one of  us was going to die and I was going to do everytrhing I could to make dam sure it wasn't me. I pulled my six shooter from its holster and aimed at the guy looking at me  about 30 yards away. He also went for his gun and in lightning speed he was laid sprawled out on the dirt bleeding and moaning. I had heard a shot but new that it had come from my own gun. He never even got a shot off. I was unscathed and again undeafeted. Anybody who ever tried to kill me was dead and their where over 30 who had tried and failed to kill yours truly.

Gravity
Posted by Bling King

Gravity is the force of nature that pulls cellestrial bodies toward one another. The cause of gravity is the enertia of a bodies movement through space and time. This happens by an object preconcievably traveling through the cosmos at an alarming rate of acceleration. The faster an object travels the more enertia it will build up and then will therefore have a greater ability to move. the more it moves the more other objects will cling to it. the way this can be proved is by taking an object and hurtling it towards another object the two objects would collide do to the enertia pulling them towards each other. Thy would not stay on their current trajectory but their paths would alter towards one another in a greater force than their initial gravitational pull. the best test to accomodate this theory would be tow baseballs flying through the air at speeds over one hundred miles an hour. The baseballs would not interject themselves with one another normally but at this speed would do so do to the balls enertia pulling them towards one another.

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