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Social Complexity

Social complexity

 

In the discipline of sociology, social complexity is a conceptual framework useful in the analysis of society. Contemporary definitions of complexity in the sciences are found in relation to systems theory, where a phenomenon under study has many parts and many possible arrangements of the relationships between those parts. At the same time, what is complex and what is simple is relative and may change with time.[1]

 

 

Overview

Current usage of the term "complexity" in the field of sociology typically refers specifically to theories of society as a Complex Adaptive System (CAS). However, social complexity and its emergent properties are central recurring themes throughout the historical development of social thought and the study of social change.[2] The early founders of sociological theory, such as Ferdinand Tönnies, Émile Durkheim, Max Weber, Vilfredo Pareto, and Georg Simmel, all examined the exponential growth and increasing interrelatedness of social encounters and exchanges. This emphasis on interconnectivity in social relationships and the emergence of new properties within society is found in theoretical thinking in multiple areas of sociology.[3] As a theoretical tool, social complexity theory serves as a basis for the connection of micro- and macro-level social phenomena, providing a meso-level or middle-range theoretical platform for hypothesis formation.[4][5] Methodologically, the concept of social complexity is theory-neutral, meaning that it accommodates both local (micro) and global (macro) phenomena in sociological research.[2]

Theoretical background

The American sociologist Talcott Parsons carried on the work of the early founders mentioned above in his early (1937) work on action theory.[6] By 1951, Parsons places these earlier ideas firmly into the realm of formal systems theory in The Social System.[7] For the next several decades, this synergy between general systems thinking and the further development of social system theories is carried forward by Parson's student, Robert K. Merton, and a long line of others, in discussions of theories of the middle-range and social structure and agency. During part of this same period, from the late 1970s through the early 1990s, discussion ensues in any number of other research areas about the properties of systems in which strong correlation of sub-parts leads to observed behaviors variously described as autopoetic, self-organizing, dynamical, turbulent, and chaotic. All of these are forms of system behavior arising from mathematical complexity. By the early 1990s, the work of social theorists such as Niklas Luhmann[8] began reflecting these themes of complex behavior.

One of the earliest usages of the term "complexity", in the social and behavioral sciences, to refer specifically to a complex system is found in the study of modern organizations and management studies.[9] However, particularly in management studies, the term often has been used in a metaphorical rather than in a qualitative or quantiative theoretical manner.[2] By the mid-1990s, the "complexity turn"[10] in social sciences begins as some of the same tools generally used in complexity science are incorporated into the social sciences. By 1998, the international, electronic periodical, Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, had been created. In the last several years, many publications have presented overviews of complexity theory within the field of sociology (see Further reading). Within this body of work, connections also are drawn to yet other theoretical traditions, including constructivist epistemology and the philosophical positions of phenomenology, postmodernism and critical realism.

Methodologies

Methodologically, social complexity is theory-neutral, meaning that it accommodates both local and global approaches to sociological research.[2] The very idea of social complexity arises out of the historical-comparative methods of early sociologists; obviously, this method is important in developing, defining, and refining the theoretical construct of social complexity. As complex social systems have many parts and there are many possible relationships between those parts, appropriate methodologies are typically determined to some degree by the research level of analysis differentiated[11] by the researcher according to the level of description or explanation demanded by the research hypotheses. At the most localized level of analysis, ethnographic, participant- or non-participant observation, content analysis and other qualitative research methods may be appropriate. More recently, highly sophisticated quantitative research methodologies are being developed and used in sociology at both local and global levels of analysis. Such methods include (but are not limited to) bifurcation diagrams, network analysis, non-linear modeling, and computational models including cellular automata programming, sociocybernetics and other methods of social simulation.

Complex social network analysis

Complex social network analysis is used to study the dynamics of large, complex social networks. Dynamic network analysis brings together traditional social network analysis, link analysis and multi-agent systems within network science and network theory.[12] Through the use of key concepts and methods in social network analysis, agent-based modeling, theoretical physics, and modern mathematics (particularly graph theory and fractal geometry), this method of inquiry brought insights into the dynamics and structure of social systems. New computational methods of localized social network analysis are coming out of the work of Duncan Watts, Albert-László Barabási, Nicholas A. Christakis, Kathleen M. Carley and others. New methods of global network analysis are emerging from the work of John Urry and the sociological study of globalization, linked to the work of Manuel Castells and the later work of Immanuel Wallerstein. Since the late 1990s, Wallerstein increasingly makes use of complexity theory, particularly the work of Ilya Prigogine.[13][14][15] Dynamic social network analysis is linked to a variety of methodological traditions, above and beyond systems thinking, including graph theory, traditional social network analysis in sociology, and mathematical sociology. It also links to mathematical chaos and complex dynamics through the work of Duncan Watts and Steven Strogatz, as well as fractal geometry through Albert-László Barabási and his work on scale-free networks.

Computational sociology

The development of computational sociology involves such scholars as Nigel Gilbert, Klaus G. Troitzsch, Joshua M. Epstein, and others. The foci of methods in this field include social simulation and data-mining, both of which are sub-areas of computational sociology. Social simulation uses computers to create an artificial laboratory for the study of complex social systems; data-mining uses machine intelligence to search for non-trivial patterns of relations in large, complex, real-world databases. The emerging methods of socionics are a variant of computational sociology.[16][17]

Computational sociology is influenced by a number of micro-sociological areas as well as the macro-level traditions of systems science and systems thinking. The micro-level influences of symbolic interaction, exchange, and rational choice, along with the micro-level focus of computational political scientists, such as Robert Axelrod, helped to develop computational sociology's bottom-up, agent-based approach to modeling complex systems. This is what Joshua M. Epstein calls generative science.[17] Other important areas of influence include statistics, mathematical modeling and computer simulation.

Sociocybernetics

Sociocybernetics integrates sociology with second-order cybernetics and the work of Niklas Luhmann, along with the latest advances in complexity science. In terms of scholarly work, the focus of sociocybernetics has been primarily conceptual and only slightly methodological or empirical.[18] Sociocybernetics is directly tied to systems thought inside and outside of sociology, specifically in the area of second-order cybernetics.

Areas of application

As a middle-range theoretical platform, social complexity can be applied to any research in which social interaction or the outcomes of such interactions can be observed, but particularly where they can be measured and expressed as continuous or discrete data points. One common criticism often cited regarding the usefulness of complexity science in sociology is the difficulty of obtaining adequate data.[19] Nonetheless, application of the concept of social complexity and the analysis of such complexity has begun and continues to be an ongoing field of inquiry in sociology. From childhood friendships and teen pregnancy[2] to criminology[20] and counter-terrorism,[21] theories of social complexity are being applied in almost all areas of sociological research.

In the area of communications research and informetrics, the concept of self-organizing systems appears in mid-1990s research related to scientific communications.[22] Scientometrics and bibliometrics are areas of research in which discrete data are available, as are several other areas of social communications research such as sociolinguistics.[2] Social complexity is also a concept used in semiotics.[23]

In the first decade of the 21st century, the diversity of areas of application has grown[24] as more sophisticated methods have developed. Social complexity theory is applied in studies of social cooperation and public goods;[25]altruism;[26] education;[27] global civil unrest;[28]collective action and social movements;[29][30] social inequality;[31] workforce and unemployment;[32][33]economic geography;[34]policy analysis;[35][36] health care systems;[37] and innovation and social change,[38][39] to name a few.

See also

Sociology-related
Other social science fields
General

References

  1. Jump up ^ Waldrop, M. Mitchell (1992.) Complexity: The Emerging Science at the Edge of Order and Chaos. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.
  2. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f Eve, Raymond, Sara Horsfall and Mary E. Lee (eds.) (1997). Chaos, Complexity and Sociology: Myths, Models, and Theories. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
  3. Jump up ^ Giddens, Anthony (1979). Central problems in Social Theory: Action, Structure and Contradiction in Social Analysis. London: Macmillan.
  4. Jump up ^ Freese, Lee (1980). "Formal Theorizing." Annual Review of Sociology, 6: 187–212 (August 1980).
  5. Jump up ^ Cohen, B. P. (1989). Developing sociological knowledge: theory and method (2nd ed.). Chicago: Nelson–Hall.
  6. Jump up ^ Parsons, Talcott ([1937] 1949). The Structure of Social Action: A Study in Social Theory with Special Reference to a Group of European Writers. New York, NY: The Free Press.
  7. Jump up ^ Parsons, Talcott (1951). The Social System. New York, NY: The Free Press
  8. Jump up ^ Luhmann, Niklas (1990.) Essays on Self-Reference, New York: Columbia University Press.
  9. Jump up ^ Kiel, L. Douglas (1994). Managing Chaos and Complexity in Government: A New Paradigm for Managing Change, Innovation and Organizational Renewal. Jossey-Bass: San Francisco.
  10. Jump up ^ Urry, John (2005). “The Complexity Turn.” Theory, Culture and Society, 22(5): 1–14.
  11. Jump up ^ Luhmann, Niklas (1982). The Differentiation of Society. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.
  12. Jump up ^ Carley, Kathleen M. (2003), “Dynamic Network Analysis." Dynamic Social Network Modeling and Analysis: Workshop Summary and Papers, Ronald Breiger, Kathleen Carley, and Philippa Pattison (eds.), National Research Council (Committee on Human Factors): Washington, D.C.: 133–145.
  13. Jump up ^ Barabási, Albert-László (2003). Linked: The New Science of Networks. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Publishing.
  14. Jump up ^ Freeman, Linton C. (2004). The Development of Social Network Analysis: A Study in the Sociology of Science. Vancouver Canada: Empirical Press.
  15. Jump up ^ Watts, Duncan J. (2004). "The New Science of Networks." Annual Review of Sociology, 30: 243–270.
  16. Jump up ^ Gilbert, Nigel and Klaus G. Troitzsch (2005). Simulation for Social Scientists, 2nd Edition. New York, NY: Open University Press.
  17. ^ Jump up to: a b Epstein, Joshua M. (2007). Generative Social Science: Studies in Agent-Based Computational Modeling. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
  18. Jump up ^ Geyer, Felix and Johannes van der Zouwen (1992). "Sociocybernetics." Handbook of Cybernetics, C.V. Negoita (ed.): 95–124. New York: Marcel Dekker.
  19. Jump up ^ Stewart, Peter (2001). "Complexity Theories, Social Theory, and the Question of Social Complexity." Philosophy of the Social Sciences, 31(3): 323–360.
  20. Jump up ^ Lee, Ju-Sung. (2001). "Evolving Drug Networks." Carnegie Mellon Center for Computational Analysis of Social and Organizational Systems (CASOS) Conference Presentation (unpublished).
  21. Jump up ^ Carley, Kathleen (2003). "Destabilizing Terrorist Networks." Proceedings of the 8th International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium. Conference held at the National Defense War College: Washington D.C., Evidence Based Research, Track 3. (Electronic Publication).
  22. Jump up ^ Leydesdorff, Loet (1995). The Challenge of Scientometrics: The development, measurement, and self-organization of scientific communications. Leiden: DSWO Press, Leiden University.
  23. Jump up ^ Dimitrov, Vladimir and Robert Woog (1997). "Studying Social Complexity: From Soft to Virtual Systems Methodology." Complex Systems, 11:(6).
  24. Jump up ^ Saberi, Mohammad Karim, Alireza Isfandyari-Moghaddam and Sedigheh Mohamadesmaeil (2011). "Web Citations Analysis of the JASSS: the First Ten Years." Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, 14:(4), 22.
  25. Jump up ^ Nowak, Martin and Roger Highfield (2011). Super Cooperators: Altruism, Evolution, and Why We Need Each Other to Succeed. New York, NY: Free Press.
  26. Jump up ^ Hang, Ye, Fei Tan, Mei Ding, Yongmin Jia and Yefeng Chen (2011). "Sympathy and Punishment: Evolution of Cooperation in Public Goods Game." Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, 14(4): 20.
  27. Jump up ^ Mason, Mark (2008). Complexity Theory and the Philosophy of Education. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell (Educational Philosophy and Theory Special Issues).
  28. Jump up ^ Braha, Dan. (2012). “Global Civil Unrest: Contagion, Self-Organization, and Prediction.” PLoS ONE 7(10): e48596. doi:10.1371/journal.pone .0048596.
  29. Jump up ^ Lohmann Susanne (1994). “Dynamics of Informational Cascades: The Monday Demonstrations in Leipzig, East Germany, 1989–1991,” World Politics, 47: 42–101.
  30. Jump up ^ Chesters, Graeme and Ian Welsh (2006). Complexity and Social Movements: Protest at the Edge of Chaos." London: Routledge (International Library of Sociology).
  31. Jump up ^ Castellani, Brian et al. (2011). "Addressing the U.S. Financial/Housing Crisis: Pareto, Schelling and Social Mobility." Working Paper.
  32. Jump up ^ Hedström, Peter and Yvonne Åberg (2011). “Social interaction and youth unemployment.” Analytical Sociology and Social Mechanisms, Pierre Demeulenaere (ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  33. Jump up ^ Yilmaz, Levent (2011). "Toward Multi-Level, Multi-Theoretical Model Portfolios for Scientific Enterprise Workforce Dynamics." Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, 14(4): 2.
  34. Jump up ^ Dan Braha, Blake Stacey and Yaneer Bar-Yam. (2011). “Corporate Competition: A Self-Organizing Network.” Social Networks, 33(3): 219-230.
  35. Jump up ^ Jervis, Robert (1998). System Effects: Complexity in Political and Social Life. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
  36. Jump up ^ Elliott, Euel and L. Douglas Kiel (eds.) (2000). Nonlinear Dynamics, Complexity and Public Policy. Hauppauge NY: Nova Science Publishers.
  37. Jump up ^ Brian Castellani, Rajeev Rajaram, J. Galen Buckwalter, Michael Ball and Frederic Hafferty (2012). “Place and Health as Complex Systems: A Case Study and Empirical Test.” Proceedings of the Complexity in Health Group, Kent State University at Ashtabula, 1(1):1–35. [1]
  38. Jump up ^ Leydesdorff, Loet (2006). The Knowledge-Based Economy Modeled, Measured, Simulated. Boca Raton, FL: Universal-Publishers .
  39. Jump up ^ Lane, D.; Pumain, D.; Leeuw, S.E. van der; West, G. (eds.) (2009). Complexity Perspectives in Innovation and Social Change. New York, NY: Springer (Methodos Series, Vol. 7).

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Author:Bling King
Published:Dec 23rd 2013
Modified:Dec 23rd 2013
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Voting Poll
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There is no such thing as time
Posted by Bling King

    

     Upon further ponderance I have come to the conclusion that time does not exist except in the law of physics. I have come to this conclusion through the observation of how things change and why they change at the pace in which they change. To me it seems that every change that takes place  in the universe is not dictated by time but rather physics. It is the law of physics that dictates the rate and speed at which all things change. For example if you have a car  that is traveling at 100 miles an hour the speed at  which the car travels is all dictated by physical changes and therfor controlled by the law of physics..Therfor it seems that for any change to take place all you need is physics and the law of physics that governs the physical changes. Time does not need be a factor and bears no relavance. As long as we have the law of physics everything will happen in accordance with those laws.

The composition of time
Posted by Bling King

   

    Time has 3 components. A front a middle and a rear. In the front time has what appears to be something of perspectual perspectualness that will move things forward at a set forth proponent. This part of time is easy to see and witness. However it is not easy to predict at which point time will make forward momentum happen. It would seem that this forward momentum is always in inactment but I would disagree with this. To me it seems more as if time interacts with things on its own accord leaving somethings unchanged for long standing periods of time. An example of this would be how time occasionally interacts with the speed of light. The speed of light remains constant but occasionally time will manifest itself into the equation and make modifications of the speed that light travels. For instance light will move forward forthwittingly at a billion miles a second but if it encounters any kind of resistance then time will inject itself and change the speed at which it was moving. Which leads me to the assumption that in order for time to inject itself into any equation a proponent has to take place that makes a physical change that would cause time to interject itself. If no physical change takes place than time has also not been a factor.

    The middle proponent of time is the area in which time is manipulating  the change that takes...Read More

👄What turns me on
Posted by Bling King

    I get turned on by some funny stuff. I'm not really into like full blown kinkiness or at least I wouldn't consider myself to be a kinky person but I do have a few fetishes. Some of them are a little out of the ordinary. For instance I have this one fetish about being tied up  and thrown in the ocean and then rescued by a mermaid. I think this fantasy comes from when I was a kid and I used to dream of mermaids and always wanted to meet one. Well one day its gonna happen. Now don't go telling me mermaids don't exist. You don't know cause they are in fact real and as soon as I meet one I will prove it to you. As far as some of my other turn ons  I guess what really gets me excited is people who  tell other people to shut the fuck up. I love when a woman just looks at a man and tells him to shut his mouth. To me thats a big turn on because the woman seems assertive like a dominatrix or something. If she will be assertive in a conversation she will be assertive in the bedroom or so I  would like to believe.

Time is a dialectable derelict
Posted by Bling King

To fathom the fortrighteousness of time one has to contemplate the personification of forthwittial forthwittil. Time forthwittingly will only listen to the commands of its on inner personification to which there is no directional direction or so it would seem but on further inquisitories I have come to realize that there is a forthwittingly forthwittal of which time has pronounced and those commands seem to speak to the nature of to which time corresponds. To review these pronouncements for your own bemusement look at time as if you had it captured it  in a bottle. What would happen? We know on the inside of the bottle time would force the inner workings of the bottle to correspond to times diabolical commands. Causing everything to change to times everlescent rules. however on the outside of the bottle things would not change, everything would stay in constant neutrality or would it? The question remains if there was no time would things still be allowed to happen and if so at what pace and what would dictate the pace at which things would change. There seems to be no rule in place for the dictation of the pace change which takes place. So it would seem that time has decided that factor somehow within itself. There could be a correlation at which things change and the pace being dictated by physics and the amount the physical world can be allowed to change within its own accord of set boundaries. To actually find...Read More

Free from time constraints
Posted by Bling King

 

 

 

There was a time when time did not matter. The thing that was an utmost relevance now was of no matter. The diffrence it made seemed miniscule and now it is constantly dictating everything that takes place before me. What is this thing that controls and makes everything manifest itself to its constraints and why and how does it do this. Time is nothing but the utmost miracle before us. Something that has always had to exist for anything ever to take place. There is no changing its course there is no variance in its absolute everlasting existance. To control time would be the utmost  crown jewel of all accomplishments if indeed it could ever be controlled. The only way I ever see time being manipulated to change its values is to speed up everything that time has interacted with. In order to do such a thing you would have to understand the nature of the objects in question and how they are effected by time. For instance a speeding car will slow down in time without constant force being distrubuted by the engine. To slow down the car one only has to take their foot off the accelarator and gradually time will do the rest but if you could freeze time at the speed at which the car was traveling then time would not  exist because the...Read More

the truth about time
Posted by Bling King

        I have looked at time many times and I have noticed a few components. There is a precise proponent that ushers in a manifestation. Whenever something new is going to happen you can look at that event which is about to take place and precisely predict exactly when it has started. Once you realize a manifestation has taken place you can precisely predict its out come. If you know that a manifestation has started to take place then you will know you are being guided through the realm precisely by the forces of an enlightenment. Throughout time this manifestation will remain constant starting with a beginning and an end and ending in a preconcieved enlightenment. Sometimes an enlightenment can take weeks and some times an enlightenment can take centuries. It depends on how many times that enlightenment has been benounced to the realm. 

 

nothing
Posted by Bling King

I suspect a suffcient of sufficence of suffiacantel suffiance of suffiance of absurdity of absurdanace. In all actual actuality there is an  actual actuality of actualityness in retrospect to the retorospective respect in which every person who has an intellectual intellect can see that the world is a prominance of prominance in which the order will reside as long as the order is maintained. Once that order is relinquished chaos will ensue. For chaos to be a calamity there only needs to be a perspectual perspective of perspectance that escalates the chaos to that height. What would cause that is a person or persons in the realm of the realmatical realmatics looking beyond thier own existance to the existance of there forfathers to see what has become of thier existance. If you look at your own existance for what it is you will see that it is neither logical nor illogical for it makes all the sense of a sensimatical sensematic. As long as you have a reason for your own existance then it is fruitful for you to exist. Once that reason or reasons are gone you will no longer care whether it is you live or die. In the realm in which we live is a prospectus prospectant of prospectantin which all will ensue. To change the prospectus prospectus you need to look to the realm and see what the prospectus prospectant is and manifest it to your own liking. My...Read More

The conclusive conclusion
Posted by Bling King

In all actual reality the realm is manifested of certain procedural procedures that come forth frequently to forthrightous forthrightenous. In the place of predicament I have found that I can properly place things in the procedural sequence unbenowst to people of the realm. In order to conflict the conflictions you have to equate the equation of equationalness in to proper equations. Very simple but also very tedious. You do this by equating the equation into percise preciseness. An example of an equation would be a placement of perdicament of a certain event in which you wish it to be. The next manifestation I could manifest is a manifestual manifestation of manifests of a sequance of certainal circumstances. Put together a sequence by asking the sequence in order to manifest itself and then tell the manifestations to happen in frequence in which they will unfold.

The Unattainable future
Posted by Bling King

     If the future is a grain of sand and its falling through an hour glass nothing in the world can stop it. It will eniquivaocalby blind as to where its going when it comes to its rest it has befallen its fate and will remain where it lay for an eternity knowing nothing about itself or it's surroundings. I am that grain of sand. Nothing ever can change my destiny for only time here makes a diffrence.. To benounce the future is the only way to change ones fortune. The time it takes to make an equivical change remains the utmost mystery of the universe.

🤯In the eyes of myself
Posted by Bling King

 

 

There where three men. All who seemed frightened. They stood on the edge of the canyon looking on as a fourth man tumbled to his death. We could have saved him said one of the men. He should have saved himself said another. The third man just look at them bewildered and brought a handgun to his own head and pulled the trigger. Blood spattered. The two men watched as he slumped to the ground. The first man screamed and the second threw himself to the side of the man on the ground. Why?!! he screamed. It was the only sound heard. Sobbing he looked at the man standing and said you did this! You and your frigging righteous speech about the lives we leave and the sacrifice we must make. Your the devil. I am not the devil said the standing man only the truth. The truth about what? The other man screamed. Your life he said and he jumped.

The man heard a ringing and he sat up slowly. It was over the dream but his thoughts where still on the side of the canyon. How did this happen. How did it all just fade away? The dream came and went in an instant leaving his mind boggled and his eyes heavy. I knew I was there thought the man but how? It was all to familiar the...Read More

The story Elijah and Ellen
Posted by Bling King

The story of Elijah and Ellan. This is the story of Elijah and Ellan. Ellan is a beutiful temptress and Elijah is a dutiful servant of Ellan's. Together the pair fell in love and soon became a duo of in excessible excession. They frolicked in the sun under the rare occurance of rain they took shelter in the arms of each other. One day while hiding from the glares of the sun under an oak tree that provided an abundance of shade they looked into each others souls and realized there where no people suited for each other then the two of them where suited for each other. They basked in the notion that they where the most two compatible souls on the planet. As they where thinking this a giant unforseen acclamaited acclamation occurred. The planet began to tremble and shake beneath them and the stars came out. The sun hid amongst the clouds and everything from start to finish began to take shape. There where huge explosions and giant surges of wind and rain. The two began to run for their shelter knowing at the exact moment the trembling and violent agressions of unacclaimated weather started that they most likely wouldn't make it to see another sunrise. The planet was exploding with molten lava and the tempertures where unbearable as for the two of them could remember they had never seen a winter climate and didn't expect they ever would. The planet had been warming out of...Read More

today was a day of dismal despair
Posted by Bling King

Things have gone down hill drastically now for a very long time. We seem to be some what defeated but yet i know we still have some power and prominance. We are fighting an up hill battle and there is no way forward from here from what i can see. We are trudging along a path that goes nowhere.

⚔️The Greatest Warrior of All Time
Posted by Bling King

 

 

Today i conquered and beat all adverseries there where to beat. Tomorrow new adversaries will arise. I will be ready, there is never a shortage of enemies who wish to dethrone me from the top of the world. I didn't get here by being passive and yeilding to the oppostion. I got here by defeating them both mentally and physically and in entiriety.

In a time of desilute despair
Posted by Bling King

     There was a time when I was in desilute despair. The only thing I had was me myself and I to fall back on. I looked at the person who was my opponent and I knew one of  us was going to die and I was going to do everytrhing I could to make dam sure it wasn't me. I pulled my six shooter from its holster and aimed at the guy looking at me  about 30 yards away. He also went for his gun and in lightning speed he was laid sprawled out on the dirt bleeding and moaning. I had heard a shot but new that it had come from my own gun. He never even got a shot off. I was unscathed and again undeafeted. Anybody who ever tried to kill me was dead and their where over 30 who had tried and failed to kill yours truly.

Gravity
Posted by Bling King

Gravity is the force of nature that pulls cellestrial bodies toward one another. The cause of gravity is the enertia of a bodies movement through space and time. This happens by an object preconcievably traveling through the cosmos at an alarming rate of acceleration. The faster an object travels the more enertia it will build up and then will therefore have a greater ability to move. the more it moves the more other objects will cling to it. the way this can be proved is by taking an object and hurtling it towards another object the two objects would collide do to the enertia pulling them towards each other. Thy would not stay on their current trajectory but their paths would alter towards one another in a greater force than their initial gravitational pull. the best test to accomodate this theory would be tow baseballs flying through the air at speeds over one hundred miles an hour. The baseballs would not interject themselves with one another normally but at this speed would do so do to the balls enertia pulling them towards one another.

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Aug 29th 2012
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Aug 29th 2012
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Aug 29th 2012
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Aug 29th 2012
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Aug 14th 2012
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Aug 16th 2012
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Aug 14th 2012
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Aug 14th 2012
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Aug 14th 2012
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Aug 14th 2012
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Aug 14th 2012
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Aug 14th 2012
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Aug 14th 2012
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Aug 14th 2012
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Aug 9th 2012
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Aug 9th 2012
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Aug 9th 2012
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Aug 7th 2012
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Mar 16th 2012
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Mar 3rd 2012
Range Rover
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Feb 23rd 2012
Hummer
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Feb 23rd 2012
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Feb 21st 2012
Bentley C
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Sep 25th 2011
Attraction
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Mar 3rd 2013
beatles image
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Mar 3rd 2013
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Mar 3rd 2013
cool image
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Mar 3rd 2013
pyramid
Added by Bling King
Mar 3rd 2013

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