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Organizational patterns

Organizational patterns

 

Kroeber's classic anthropological texts on the patterns that underlie culture and society. [2] They in turn have provided inspiration for the Agile software development movement, and for the creation of parts of Scrum and of Extreme Programming in particular.

 

 

History

An early explicit citation to patterns of social structure can be found in the anthropological literature.

Patterns are those arrangements or systems of internal relationship which give to any culture its coherence or plan, and keep it from being a mere accumulation of random bits. They are therefore of primary importance.[3]

Kroeber speaks of universal patterns that describe some overall scheme common to all human culture; of systemic patterns are broad but normative forms relating to beliefs, behaviors, signs, and economics; and total culture patterns that are local. Kroeber notes that systemic patterns can pass from culture to culture:

A second kind of pattern consists of a system or complex of cultural material that has proved its utility as a system and therefore tends to cohere and persist as a unit; it is modifiable only with difficulty as to its underlying plan. Any one such systemic pattern is limited primarily to one aspect of culture, such as subsistence, religion, or economics; but it is not limited areally, or to one particular culture; it can be diffused cross-culturally, from one people to another. . . . What distinguishes these systemic patterns of culture—or well-patterned systems, as they might also be called—is a specific interrelation of their component parts, a nexus that holds them together strongly, and tends to preserve the basic plan... As a result of the persistence of these systemic patterns, their significance becomes most evident on a historical view. [4]

The pattern aspect of

Kroeber's view fits very well the systems-thinking pattern view of Christopher Alexander in the field of architecture. Alexander's books became an inspiration for the software world, and in particular for the object-oriented programming world, in about 1993. Organizational patterns in the sense they are recognized in the software community today first made an appearance at the original Hillside Group workshop that would lead to the pattern community and its PLoP conferences. [5]

The Hillside Group sent out a call for pattern papers and, in 1995, held the first pattern conference at Allerton Park in central Illinois in the United States. The second conference, also at Allerton, would follow a year later. These first two PLoP conferences witnessed a handful of organizational patterns:

A flurry of associated publications and follow-up articles followed quickly thereafter, including an extemporization of the organizational patterns approach in the Bell Labs Technical Journal, [11] an invited piece in ASE, [12] a CACM article by Alistair Cockburn [13] and, shortly thereafter, a pattern-laden book by Alistair, [14] as well as chapters by Benualdi [15] and Janoff [16] in the Patterns Handbook. It was also about this time that Michael A. Beedle et al. published patterns that described explicit extensions to existing organizational patterns, for application in projects using a then five-year-old software development framework called Scrum. [17] A few more articles, such as the one by Brash et al. [18] also started to appear.

Little more happened on the organizational patterns front until the publication of the book by Berczuk et all on configuration management patterns; [19] this was a break-off effort from the effort originally centered at Bell Labs.

In the mean time, Jim Coplien and Neil Harrison had been collecting organizational patterns and combining them into a collection of four pattern languages. Most of these patterns were based on the original research from Bell Laboratories, which studied over 120 organizations over the period of a decade. These empirical studies were based on subject role-play in software development organizations, reminiscent of the sociodramas of Moreno's original social network approach. [20] However, the pattern language also had substantial input from other sources and in particular the works by Cockburn, Berczuk, and Cunningham. This collection was published as Organizational Patterns of Agile Software Development in 2004. [21]

One of the most recent organizational pattern articles comes from an early pattern contributor and advocate, the object design pioneer Grady Booch. [22]

Principles of discovery and use

Like other patterns, organizational patterns aren't created or invented: they are discovered (or "mined") from empirical observation. The early work on organizational patterns at Bell Laboratories focused on extracting patterns from social network analysis. That research used empirical role-playing techniques to gather information about the structure of relationships in the subject organization. These structures were analyzed for recurring patterns across organization and their contribution to achieving organizational goals. The recurring successful structures were written up in pattern form to describe their tradeoffs and detailed design decisions (forces), the context in which they apply, along with a generic description of the solution.

Patterns provide an incremental path to organizational improvement. The pattern style of building something (in this case, an organization) is:

  1. Find the weakest part of your organization
  2. Find a pattern that is likely to strengthen it
  3. Apply the pattern
  4. Measure the improvement or degradation
  5. If the pattern improved things, go to step 1 and find the next improvement; otherwise, undo the pattern and try an alternative.

As with Alexander-style patterns of software architecture, organizational patterns can be organized into pattern languages: collections of patterns that build on each other. A pattern language can suggest the patterns to be applied for a known set of working patterns that are present.

Organizational patterns, agile, and other work

The history of Agile software development and of organizational patterns have been entwined since the beginning. Kent Beck was the shepherd (interactive pattern reviewer) of the Coplien paper for the 1995 PLoP, and he mentions the influence of this work on extreme programming in a 2003 publication. [23] The idea of daily Scrum meetings in fact came from a draft of an article for Dr. Dobb's Journal [24] that described the organizational patterns research on the Borland QPW project. [25] Beedle's early work with Sutherland brought the pattern perspective more solidly into the history of Scrum. More recently, the Scrum community has taken up newfound interest in organizational patterns [26] and there is joint research going forward between the two communities. In this vein, the first ScrumPLoP conference took place in Sweden in May, 2010, sanctioned by both the Scrum Alliance and the Hillside Group.

References

  1. Jump up ^ Alexander, Christopher. A Pattern Language. Oxford University Press, ©1979.
  2. Jump up ^ Kroeber, Alfred L. Anthropology: Culture, Patterns, and Process. New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, 1948.
  3. Jump up ^ Kroeber, Alfred L. Anthropology: Culture, Patterns, and Process. New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, 1948, p. 119
  4. Jump up ^ Kroeber, Alfred L. Anthropology: Culture, Patterns, and Process. New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, 1948, pp. 120 - 121.
  5. Jump up ^ Coplien, James. The Culture of Patterns. In Branislav Lazarevic, ed., Computer Science and Information Systems Journal 1, 2, Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro, November 15, 2004, pp. 1-26.
  6. Jump up ^ Whitenack, Bruce. RAPPeL: a requirements-analysis-process pattern language for object-oriented development. In James Coplien and Doug Schmidt, eds., Pattern Languages of Program Design. Addison-Wesley, 1995, pp. 259 - 291.
  7. Jump up ^ Kerth, Norm. Caterpillar's Fate: a pattern language for the transformation from analysis to design. In James Coplien and Doug Schmidt, eds., Pattern Languages of Program Design. Addison-Wesley, 1995, pp. 293 - 320.
  8. Jump up ^ Coplien, James. Organizational Patterns. In James Coplien and Doug Schmidt, eds., Pattern Languages of Program Design. Addison-Wesley, 1995, pp. 183 - 237.
  9. Jump up ^ Cunningham, Ward. Episodes: a pattern language of competitive development. In Vlissides et al., eds., Pattern Languages of Program Design - 2. Addison-Wesley, 1996, pp. 371 - 388.
  10. Jump up ^ Harrison, Neil. Organizational Patterns for Teams. In Vlissides et al., eds., Pattern Languages of Program Design - 2. Addison-Wesley, 1996, pp. 345 - 352.
  11. Jump up ^ Harrison, Neil B. and James O. Coplien. Patterns of productive software organizations. Bell Labs Technical Journal, 1(1):138-145, Summer (September) 1996.
  12. Jump up ^ Cain, Brendan G., James O. Coplien, and Neil B. Harrison. Social Patterns in Productive Software Organizations. In John T. McGregor, editor, Annals of Software Engineering, 259-286. Baltzer Science Publishers, Amsterdam, December 1996.
  13. Jump up ^ Cockburn, Alistair. The interaction of social issues and software architecture. CACM 39(10), October 1996.
  14. Jump up ^ Cockburn, Alistair. Surviving Object-Oriented Projects. Addison-Wesley, 1997.
  15. Jump up ^ Genualdi, Patricia. Improving software development with process and organizational patterns. In Linda Rising, ed. The Patterns Handbook. Cambridge University Press, 1998, pp. 121 - 129.
  16. Jump up ^ Janoff, Norm. Organizational patterns at AG communication systems. In Linda Rising, ed. The Patterns Handbook. Cambridge University Press, 1998, pp. 131 - 138.
  17. Jump up ^ Michael A. Beedle, Martine Devos, Yonat Sharon, Ken Schwaber, and Jeff Sutherland. SCRUM: An extension pattern language for hyperproductive software development. Washington University Technical Report TR #WUCS-98-25, 1998.
  18. Jump up ^ Brash, Danny, et al. Evaluating organizational patterns for supporting business knowledge management. Proceedings of the 2000 information resources management association international conference on Challenges of information technology management in the 21st century. IGI Publishing, May 2000.
  19. Jump up ^ Berczuk, Steve, Brad Appleton and Kyle Brown. Software Configuration Management Patterns: Effective Teamwork, Practical Integration. Addison-Wesley, 2003.
  20. Jump up ^ Moreno, J. L. Who shall survive?: foundations of sociometry, group psychotherapy and sociodrama. Washington, D.C.: Nervous and Metnal Disease Publishing Co., 1934.
  21. Jump up ^ Coplien, James and Neil Harrison. Patterns of Agile Software Development. Addison-Wesley, ©2004.
  22. Jump up ^ Booch, Grady. Architectural Organizational Patterns. IEEE Software 25(3), May 2008, pp. 18 - 19.
  23. Jump up ^ Fraser, Steven, Kent Beck, Bill Caputo, Tim Mackinnon, James Newkirk and Charlie Pool. "Test Driven Development (TDD)." In M. Marchesi and G. Succi, eds., XP 2003, LNCS 2675, pp. 459 — 462, 2003. © Springer-Verlag, Berlin and Heidelberg, 2003.
  24. Jump up ^ Coplien, James O., and Jon Erickson. Examining the Software Development Process. Dr. Dobb's Journal of Software Tools, 19(11):88-95, October 1994.
  25. Jump up ^ Sutherland, Jeff. Origins of Scrum. Web page [1], accessed 22 September 2008. July 5, 2007.
  26. Jump up ^ Sutherland, Jeff. Scrum and Organizational Patterns. Web page [2], accessed 14 June, 2013. May 20, 2013.
Author:Bling King
Published:Dec 23rd 2013
Modified:Dec 23rd 2013
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There is no such thing as time
Posted by Bling King

    

     Upon further ponderance I have come to the conclusion that time does not exist except in the law of physics. I have come to this conclusion through the observation of how things change and why they change at the pace in which they change. To me it seems that every change that takes place  in the universe is not dictated by time but rather physics. It is the law of physics that dictates the rate and speed at which all things change. For example if you have a car  that is traveling at 100 miles an hour the speed at  which the car travels is all dictated by physical changes and therfor controlled by the law of physics..Therfor it seems that for any change to take place all you need is physics and the law of physics that governs the physical changes. Time does not need be a factor and bears no relavance. As long as we have the law of physics everything will happen in accordance with those laws.

The composition of time
Posted by Bling King

   

    Time has 3 components. A front a middle and a rear. In the front time has what appears to be something of perspectual perspectualness that will move things forward at a set forth proponent. This part of time is easy to see and witness. However it is not easy to predict at which point time will make forward momentum happen. It would seem that this forward momentum is always in inactment but I would disagree with this. To me it seems more as if time interacts with things on its own accord leaving somethings unchanged for long standing periods of time. An example of this would be how time occasionally interacts with the speed of light. The speed of light remains constant but occasionally time will manifest itself into the equation and make modifications of the speed that light travels. For instance light will move forward forthwittingly at a billion miles a second but if it encounters any kind of resistance then time will inject itself and change the speed at which it was moving. Which leads me to the assumption that in order for time to inject itself into any equation a proponent has to take place that makes a physical change that would cause time to interject itself. If no physical change takes place than time has also not been a factor.

    The middle proponent of time is the area in which time is manipulating  the change that takes...Read More

👄What turns me on
Posted by Bling King

    I get turned on by some funny stuff. I'm not really into like full blown kinkiness or at least I wouldn't consider myself to be a kinky person but I do have a few fetishes. Some of them are a little out of the ordinary. For instance I have this one fetish about being tied up  and thrown in the ocean and then rescued by a mermaid. I think this fantasy comes from when I was a kid and I used to dream of mermaids and always wanted to meet one. Well one day its gonna happen. Now don't go telling me mermaids don't exist. You don't know cause they are in fact real and as soon as I meet one I will prove it to you. As far as some of my other turn ons  I guess what really gets me excited is people who  tell other people to shut the fuck up. I love when a woman just looks at a man and tells him to shut his mouth. To me thats a big turn on because the woman seems assertive like a dominatrix or something. If she will be assertive in a conversation she will be assertive in the bedroom or so I  would like to believe.

Time is a dialectable derelict
Posted by Bling King

To fathom the fortrighteousness of time one has to contemplate the personification of forthwittial forthwittil. Time forthwittingly will only listen to the commands of its on inner personification to which there is no directional direction or so it would seem but on further inquisitories I have come to realize that there is a forthwittingly forthwittal of which time has pronounced and those commands seem to speak to the nature of to which time corresponds. To review these pronouncements for your own bemusement look at time as if you had it captured it  in a bottle. What would happen? We know on the inside of the bottle time would force the inner workings of the bottle to correspond to times diabolical commands. Causing everything to change to times everlescent rules. however on the outside of the bottle things would not change, everything would stay in constant neutrality or would it? The question remains if there was no time would things still be allowed to happen and if so at what pace and what would dictate the pace at which things would change. There seems to be no rule in place for the dictation of the pace change which takes place. So it would seem that time has decided that factor somehow within itself. There could be a correlation at which things change and the pace being dictated by physics and the amount the physical world can be allowed to change within its own accord of set boundaries. To actually find...Read More

Free from time constraints
Posted by Bling King

 

 

 

There was a time when time did not matter. The thing that was an utmost relevance now was of no matter. The diffrence it made seemed miniscule and now it is constantly dictating everything that takes place before me. What is this thing that controls and makes everything manifest itself to its constraints and why and how does it do this. Time is nothing but the utmost miracle before us. Something that has always had to exist for anything ever to take place. There is no changing its course there is no variance in its absolute everlasting existance. To control time would be the utmost  crown jewel of all accomplishments if indeed it could ever be controlled. The only way I ever see time being manipulated to change its values is to speed up everything that time has interacted with. In order to do such a thing you would have to understand the nature of the objects in question and how they are effected by time. For instance a speeding car will slow down in time without constant force being distrubuted by the engine. To slow down the car one only has to take their foot off the accelarator and gradually time will do the rest but if you could freeze time at the speed at which the car was traveling then time would not  exist because the...Read More

the truth about time
Posted by Bling King

        I have looked at time many times and I have noticed a few components. There is a precise proponent that ushers in a manifestation. Whenever something new is going to happen you can look at that event which is about to take place and precisely predict exactly when it has started. Once you realize a manifestation has taken place you can precisely predict its out come. If you know that a manifestation has started to take place then you will know you are being guided through the realm precisely by the forces of an enlightenment. Throughout time this manifestation will remain constant starting with a beginning and an end and ending in a preconcieved enlightenment. Sometimes an enlightenment can take weeks and some times an enlightenment can take centuries. It depends on how many times that enlightenment has been benounced to the realm. 

 

nothing
Posted by Bling King

I suspect a suffcient of sufficence of suffiacantel suffiance of suffiance of absurdity of absurdanace. In all actual actuality there is an  actual actuality of actualityness in retrospect to the retorospective respect in which every person who has an intellectual intellect can see that the world is a prominance of prominance in which the order will reside as long as the order is maintained. Once that order is relinquished chaos will ensue. For chaos to be a calamity there only needs to be a perspectual perspective of perspectance that escalates the chaos to that height. What would cause that is a person or persons in the realm of the realmatical realmatics looking beyond thier own existance to the existance of there forfathers to see what has become of thier existance. If you look at your own existance for what it is you will see that it is neither logical nor illogical for it makes all the sense of a sensimatical sensematic. As long as you have a reason for your own existance then it is fruitful for you to exist. Once that reason or reasons are gone you will no longer care whether it is you live or die. In the realm in which we live is a prospectus prospectant of prospectantin which all will ensue. To change the prospectus prospectus you need to look to the realm and see what the prospectus prospectant is and manifest it to your own liking. My...Read More

The conclusive conclusion
Posted by Bling King

In all actual reality the realm is manifested of certain procedural procedures that come forth frequently to forthrightous forthrightenous. In the place of predicament I have found that I can properly place things in the procedural sequence unbenowst to people of the realm. In order to conflict the conflictions you have to equate the equation of equationalness in to proper equations. Very simple but also very tedious. You do this by equating the equation into percise preciseness. An example of an equation would be a placement of perdicament of a certain event in which you wish it to be. The next manifestation I could manifest is a manifestual manifestation of manifests of a sequance of certainal circumstances. Put together a sequence by asking the sequence in order to manifest itself and then tell the manifestations to happen in frequence in which they will unfold.

The Unattainable future
Posted by Bling King

     If the future is a grain of sand and its falling through an hour glass nothing in the world can stop it. It will eniquivaocalby blind as to where its going when it comes to its rest it has befallen its fate and will remain where it lay for an eternity knowing nothing about itself or it's surroundings. I am that grain of sand. Nothing ever can change my destiny for only time here makes a diffrence.. To benounce the future is the only way to change ones fortune. The time it takes to make an equivical change remains the utmost mystery of the universe.

🤯In the eyes of myself
Posted by Bling King

 

 

There where three men. All who seemed frightened. They stood on the edge of the canyon looking on as a fourth man tumbled to his death. We could have saved him said one of the men. He should have saved himself said another. The third man just look at them bewildered and brought a handgun to his own head and pulled the trigger. Blood spattered. The two men watched as he slumped to the ground. The first man screamed and the second threw himself to the side of the man on the ground. Why?!! he screamed. It was the only sound heard. Sobbing he looked at the man standing and said you did this! You and your frigging righteous speech about the lives we leave and the sacrifice we must make. Your the devil. I am not the devil said the standing man only the truth. The truth about what? The other man screamed. Your life he said and he jumped.

The man heard a ringing and he sat up slowly. It was over the dream but his thoughts where still on the side of the canyon. How did this happen. How did it all just fade away? The dream came and went in an instant leaving his mind boggled and his eyes heavy. I knew I was there thought the man but how? It was all to familiar the...Read More

The story Elijah and Ellen
Posted by Bling King

The story of Elijah and Ellan. This is the story of Elijah and Ellan. Ellan is a beutiful temptress and Elijah is a dutiful servant of Ellan's. Together the pair fell in love and soon became a duo of in excessible excession. They frolicked in the sun under the rare occurance of rain they took shelter in the arms of each other. One day while hiding from the glares of the sun under an oak tree that provided an abundance of shade they looked into each others souls and realized there where no people suited for each other then the two of them where suited for each other. They basked in the notion that they where the most two compatible souls on the planet. As they where thinking this a giant unforseen acclamaited acclamation occurred. The planet began to tremble and shake beneath them and the stars came out. The sun hid amongst the clouds and everything from start to finish began to take shape. There where huge explosions and giant surges of wind and rain. The two began to run for their shelter knowing at the exact moment the trembling and violent agressions of unacclaimated weather started that they most likely wouldn't make it to see another sunrise. The planet was exploding with molten lava and the tempertures where unbearable as for the two of them could remember they had never seen a winter climate and didn't expect they ever would. The planet had been warming out of...Read More

today was a day of dismal despair
Posted by Bling King

Things have gone down hill drastically now for a very long time. We seem to be some what defeated but yet i know we still have some power and prominance. We are fighting an up hill battle and there is no way forward from here from what i can see. We are trudging along a path that goes nowhere.

⚔️The Greatest Warrior of All Time
Posted by Bling King

 

 

Today i conquered and beat all adverseries there where to beat. Tomorrow new adversaries will arise. I will be ready, there is never a shortage of enemies who wish to dethrone me from the top of the world. I didn't get here by being passive and yeilding to the oppostion. I got here by defeating them both mentally and physically and in entiriety.

In a time of desilute despair
Posted by Bling King

     There was a time when I was in desilute despair. The only thing I had was me myself and I to fall back on. I looked at the person who was my opponent and I knew one of  us was going to die and I was going to do everytrhing I could to make dam sure it wasn't me. I pulled my six shooter from its holster and aimed at the guy looking at me  about 30 yards away. He also went for his gun and in lightning speed he was laid sprawled out on the dirt bleeding and moaning. I had heard a shot but new that it had come from my own gun. He never even got a shot off. I was unscathed and again undeafeted. Anybody who ever tried to kill me was dead and their where over 30 who had tried and failed to kill yours truly.

Gravity
Posted by Bling King

Gravity is the force of nature that pulls cellestrial bodies toward one another. The cause of gravity is the enertia of a bodies movement through space and time. This happens by an object preconcievably traveling through the cosmos at an alarming rate of acceleration. The faster an object travels the more enertia it will build up and then will therefore have a greater ability to move. the more it moves the more other objects will cling to it. the way this can be proved is by taking an object and hurtling it towards another object the two objects would collide do to the enertia pulling them towards each other. Thy would not stay on their current trajectory but their paths would alter towards one another in a greater force than their initial gravitational pull. the best test to accomodate this theory would be tow baseballs flying through the air at speeds over one hundred miles an hour. The baseballs would not interject themselves with one another normally but at this speed would do so do to the balls enertia pulling them towards one another.

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